What is Motherboard?


What is Motherboard? 

The motherboard is the main Printed Circuit Board (PCB) in the computer which works to reach connectivity between the parts of the computer or laptop such as CPU, Processor, RAM, Hard Drive (HDD), and Graphic Card, etc.

Apart from this, the ports given in the motherboard allow you to connect external devices to the computer. Such as monitor, speaker, keyboard, mouse and USB etc.

Different types of motherboards are made to work with specific types of processors and memory.

Types Of Motherboard

There are generally 4 types of motherboards.
  1. Mini ITX
  2. Micro ATX
  3. Standard ATX
  4. EATX

1) Mini ITX Motherboard

Mini ITX motherboards are generally 6.7 x 6.7 inches. This motherboard is the most missed. You get very few USB connectors in Mini ITX. Only 1 PCI SLOT is available inside this motherboard. Because of which you want to apply any card at any time, then you can apply only one card. Due to the small size of the Mini ITX and the cooling fan with less cooling, it consumes less electricity.

2) Micro ATX Motherboard

Micro ATX is normally 9.6 × 9.6 inches. In this, you get a little more USB connectors than Mini ITX. Apart from this, four PCI slots and 4 RAM slots are also available in Micro ATX. By using this motherboard, you can build a missed PC.

3) Standard ATX Motherboard

Standard ATX stands for Advanced Technology Extended. ATX motherboards are typically 12 x 9.6 inches. In this you get 6 PCI SLOTS and 4 RAM SLOTS. Apart from this, HDMI is also available in it.

4) E-ATX Motherboard

E-ATX motherboard is mainly used for gaming. E-ATX motherboards are much larger than all other motherboards. In this you get 7 PCI slots and 8 ram slots. It gets 4-10 USB ports. 128 GB RAM can be installed in E-ATX motherboard. Apart from this, inbuilt WiFi, sound card and VRM are available.

Motherboard Function

  1. In a computer or laptop, the motherboard works as a backbone, on which many other parts like CPU, RAM, HARD DISK are installed.
  2. The circuit board in the motherboard is the PCB (Printed Circuit Board). On which there are different routes, which are also known as buses. These buses help in transferring data to all the components of the computer or laptop.
  3. Motherboard is responsible for transmitting power to different components of the computer or laptop.
  4. BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) is installed in the motherboard. The BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) assists the booting process when your computer or laptop is powered on.

Motherboard Parts And Functions

image source: Pixabay

1) PS/2 Connector – PS/2 CONNECTOR

The full name of PS/2 is "Personal System/2". PS/2 connectors are 6-pin Mini-DIN connectors. Which is used to connect devices like keyboard and mouse to the computer.

2) USB CONNECTOR

The full name of the USB connector is "Universal serial bus". USB helps to connect large devices like the keyboard, scanner, printer, and pen drive to the computer.

3) CPU CHIP – CPU CHIP

The full name of the CPU is "Central Processing Unit", it is also called "Microprocessor". CPU works as the brain of a computer or laptop. The CPU is capable of doing all the logically related activities.

4) CPU Socket – CPU SOCKET

A CPU socket is the part of the motherboard inside the computer on which the processor is installed. In every computer, the processor is installed according to the capacity of the computer. As you must have heard P1, P2, Dual-Core, Quad-Core, Octa-Core, Core i3, Core i5, Core i7, and Core i9 Etc.

5) RAM SLOT - RAM SLOT

The RAM slot is used to connect the RAM to the motherboard. This is a very important part of the computer.

6) IDE Controller – IDE Controller

The full name of IDE controller is "Integrated Drive Electronics". IDE Controller is also known as PATA. The main job of the IDE is to control the activities of the hard drive.

7) PCI SLOT - PCI SLOT

The full name of PCI is "Peripheral Component Interconnect". With the help of PCI Slot, you can install network cards, video cards and sound cards in your computer.

8) ISA SLOT – ISA SLOT

The full name of ISA is "Industry Standard Architecture". The motherboard allows to accept various ISA-compatible cards.

9) CMOS BATTERY

The full name of CMOS is "Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor". The main function of CMOS Battery is to keep the time and date chip running when the computer's power is turned off.

10) AGP SLOT – AGP SLOT

The full name of AGP is "Accelerated Graphics Port". AGP Slot is most commonly used in computers. AGP slot is used to connect video cards to the computer.

11) Bios – BIOS

The full name of Bios is "Basic Input/Output System". This is a kind of chip which is located in all motherboards. The main work of Bios is how your computer system should boot and how it should work.

12) NORTH BRIDGE – NORTH BRIDGE

NorthBridge is the main chip present in the computer that connects the Central Processing Unit (CPU) with other components of the system such as Ram, Front Bus, PCI Cards and Agp Cards.

13) SOUTH BRIDGE – SOUTH BRIDGE

SouthBridge is a main chip present in the computer which manages all the I/O (input/output) functions of the computer. Such as USB, Audio, Serial, System BIOS, ISA bus, interrupt controller and IDE channels.

14) SWITCHES AND JUMPERS – SWITCHES AND JUMPERS

Motherboard has three types of jumper DIP, jumper pin and jumper cap. The DIP switch is placed on the motherboard and has the flexibility to turn it on and off. To complete the circuit a pool is created for which jumper pins are used. Jumper caps are used to configure all types of expansion cards.

15) CAPACITORS – CAPACITORS

Capacitors in the motherboard are used to store energy in the electric field.

16) FLOPPY DISK SLOT

The floppy disk slot in the computer is used to place the floppy drive in the CPU.

17) CPU – CPU

The full name of CPU is Central Processing Unit. CPU computer or laptop is an electronic microchip. Which converts data into information. The cpu controls the entire computer system.

18) CPU Fan – CPU FAN

In a computer or laptop, the CPU fan is mounted above the processor. The job of CPU Fan is to protect the processor from overheating.

19) HEAT SINK – HEAT SINK

Heat sink is such a component installed in the motherboard that dissipates and cools the heat around any device. It is commonly used for CPU and graphics card.

20) PARALLEL PORT – PARALLEL PORT

Parallel Port is also commonly called Printer Port. Parallel Port is used to connect external devices to the computer. For example: Printer

21) LAN PORT – LAN PORT

The full name of LAN is local area network. Which provides internet to computer through wired through LAN port in computer or laptop.

22) USB PORT – USB PORT

The full name of USB is Universal Serial Bus. USB PORT is used
to connect Pendrive, Keyboard, WiFi Adapter etc. to the computer or laptop.

23) Audio Port – AUDIO PORT

Audio port in the motherboard A port in which you can connect devices like your headphones, speakers, home theater etc. to the computer.

24) VGA Port – VGA PORT

The full name of VGA is Video Graphics Array. VGA port is generally of 15-Pins. VGA port is used in older monitors and projectors.

25) Motherboard Coil – MOTHERBOARD COIL

The function of coils in the motherboard is to remove power spikes and dips from power.

Features Of Motherboard

  1. There are many components in the motherboard of a computer, but the motherboard supports only one CPU.
  2. Users can use the extra functionality of the motherboard by adding an expansion card to the motherboard.
  3. In many motherboards, users can use more than one hard drive.
  4. The motherboard is designed in such a way that users can change any type of components on their own.
  5. If users use games and many big software then they may need to increase the power of the motherboard. Therefore, users can increase the power of the motherboard by adding RAM, graphics cards, etc. to the motherboard.

List Of Motherboard Manufacturers – List Of Motherboard Manufacturers

  • Acer
  • ACube Systems – (ACube Systems)
  • Adex Electronics
  • Albatron
  • Ali - (ALi)
  • Open – (AOpen)
  • ASRock – (ASRock)
  • Asus - (ASUS)
  • ASUSTEK – (ASUSTeK)
  • Biostar – (BIOSTAR)
  • चैनटेक – (Chaintech)
  • DFI – (DFI)
  • ECS – (ECS)
  • Elitegroup Computer Systems – (Elitegroup Computer Systems)
  • EVGA – (EVGA)
  • Foxconn – (Foxconn)
  • General Standards
  • Gigabyte – (GIGABYTE)
  • Gumstix
  • Intel – (Intel)
  • Kontron – (Kontron)
  • लीडटेक – (Leadtek)
  • MSI/Micro-Star – (MSI/Micro-Star)
  • Sapphire Technology
  • SBS Bit 3 – (SBS Bit 3)
  • SBS Technologies – (SBS technologies)
  • शटल – (Shuttle)
  • Supermicro -
  • Citron – (Systran)
  • Trenton Technology -
  • Tundra
  • Tyan - (Tyan)
  • क्सिलिन्क्स – (Xilinx)
  • Zotec – (Zotac)

What Does a Motherboard Do?

The motherboard is a part of the computer that connects all the computer components with each other by staying in one place. Due to this the computer is able to work well. Without the motherboard, no components in the computer can be connected with each other. That's why the motherboard is a very important part of a computer or laptop.

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